Traditional approaches can’t always provide an adequate response to the challenges of modern societies. Increasing urbanization, new lifestyles, and working environments require new types of buildings. In addition, new building envelope materials like large glass facades and technical building equipment have become integral parts of modern buildings.
Therefore, the following three solution approaches seem to be the most promising: a return to the climate adaptability of man, naturally ventilated buildings, and the design of building zones with different thermal comfort levels according to the ‘onion skin principle’.
Open planning is necessary for which the rooms are directly linked to open spaces. There is a need for cross ventilation to ensure comfort in the indoor spaces. The buildings should be well protected from solar radiation and driving rain during the rainy season.
Passive cooling strategies: by using Louver shading devices, double glazing, and Natural ventilation windcatcher and cross ventilation, Evaporative cooling via a fountain, light color coatings with high reflection, insulation, and buffer zones to minimize conducted and radiated heat gains techniques are applied to the building.
A Double-skin façade, or DSF, is an envelope construction composed of two transparent ”skins” that are separated by an air corridor. The DSF is a form of active façade that integrates passive design strategies, such as natural ventilation, daylighting, and solar energy. The DSF system consists of three components: an exterior wall, a ventilated cavity, and an interior wall. The exterior wall provides protection against the weather. Outside layers tend to be made of perforated metal sheets and the interior wall of the DSF system is a thermal-insulating single or double pane glass. Here, low emittance coatings can be used to reduce radiative heat gain. This layer may have operable casement or sliding glass doors. The cavity is an undivided or divided buffer space. The cavity insulates the building against wind, sound, and temperature. It pulls in outside air and uses it for the controlled ventilation of interior spaces. The DSF system is a sustainable design solution with many advantages. One of its main advantages is increasing the energy efficiency of buildings.